The Romans came to Britain nearly 2000 years ago and changed our country. Even today, evidence of the Romans being here, can be seen in the ruins of Roman buildings, forts, roads, and baths can be found all over Britain.
The Romans invaded other countries too. The Roman Empire covered much of Europe, north Africa, and the Middle East.
The Romans lived in Rome, a city in the centre of the country of Italy .
One day, some years before Jesus Christ was born, the Romans came to Britain.
Britain before the Romans (The Celts)
Who founded Rome?
When did the Romans invade Britain?
In which year did the Romans invade Britain?
Why did the Romans invade Britain?
How many times did Julius Caesar try to invade Britain?
How long did the Romans stay in Britain?
What lanuage did the Romans speak?
Why did the Romans leave Britain?
What did the Romans call London?
Why was the Roman Empire important?
What did the Romans give us?
Video on the Roman Empire
According to the Roman legend, Romulus was the founder of Rome. Romulus and his twin brother Remus were the sons of the God Mars. When they were very young they were abandoned by the banks of the River Tiber and left to fend for themselves. Luckily for them they were found by a she-wolf who took pity on them fed them with her milk. The boys were later found by a shepherd who raised them. The boys grew up to be very strong and clever and they decided to build a town on the spot where the Shepherd had found them. They named their town Rome.
First invasion - Caesar's first raid
In August 55 B.C. (55 years before Jesus was born) the Roman general, EmperorJulius Caesar invaded Britain. He took with him two Roman legions. After winning several battles against the Celtic tribes (Britons) in south-east England he returned to France.
Second invasion - Caesar's second raid
The following summer (in 54 B.C.) Caesar came to Britain again landing at Walmer near Deal in Kent. This time he brought with him no fewer than five legions (30,000 foot soldiers) and 2,000 cavalrymen (horse riders). This time the Romans crossed the River Thames. After more fighting, the British tribes promised to pay tribute to Rome and were then left in peace for nearly a century.
Third and final invasion
Nearly one hundred years later, in 43 A.D. (43 years after Jesus was born), Emperor Claudius organised the final and successful Roman invasion of Britain. General Aulus Plautius led four legions with 25,000 men, plus an equal number of auxiliary soldiers. They crossed the Channel in three divisions, landing at Richborough, Dover, and Lympne.
(Click here for more information on the map of Kent in Roman times)
The biggest battle was fought on the banks of the River Medway, close to Rochester. It went on for two days before the Celtic tribes retreated.
Many tribes tried to resist the Romans. It took about four years for the invaders to finally gain control over southern England, and another 30 years for them to conquer all of the West Country and the mountains and valleys of Wales. The battle for Yorkshire and the remainder of northern England was still underway in AD 70.
The first Roman city was Camulodunum also called Colonia Vitricencis. (We know it by the name of Colchester.) It was the seat of Roman power and governance of Brittania until sacked during the Boudiccan revolt. London was then established as a seat of governance, and only became important after the Camulodunum event.
Why the Romans came to Britain is not quite certain. Two reasons have been suggested:
- The Romans were cross with Britain for helping the Gauls (now called the French) fight against the Roman general Julius Caesar.
- They came to Britain looking for riches - land, slaves, and most of all, iron, lead, zinc, copper, silver and gold.
The Romans remained in Britain from 43 AD to 410 AD. That is almost four hundred years (four centuries).
The Romans spoke a form of Latin known as vulgar Latin. It was quite different from the Classical Latin that we learn today.
Their homes in Italy were being attacked by fierce tribes and every soldier was needed.
The Romans called London 'Londinium'.
The River Thames was quick way to transport goods between Britain and the Continent. The Romans saw this and built the town of Londinium around the river's main crossing point.
Find out more about Roman London
The Romans, even today, play an important part in our lives. Many of the things we do or have originated from the Romans.
The language we used today was developed from the Romans. The Romans spoke and wrote in Latin and many of our words are based on Latin words.
- The Calendar
Did you know that the calendar we use today is more than 2,000 years old? It was started by Julius Caesar, a Roman ruler. It is based on the movement of the earth around the sun, and so is called the 'solar calendar.' The solar calendar has 365 days a year, and 366 days every leap year, or every fourth year. The names of our months are taken from the names of Roman gods and rulers. The month 'July,' in fact, is named after Julius Caesar himself!
- Laws and a legal system
The laws and ways we determine what to do with someone who is accused of breaking a law came originally from the Roman Empire.
- The Census
The Roman Empire was huge and included millions of people living over a large area. How did they keep track of all these people? Easy! They counted them! The Roman Empire began the practice of taking a census, or a 'count,' of all the people within its boundaries every so often. Today, many countries like ours take a census every 10 years.
- straight roads
- central heating
- aqueducts (bridges for water)
Use the links, top left, for more information about the Romans.
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Click here for our calendar of Religious Festivals
What and when are the main Jewish Festivals?
Passover (Pesach in Hebrew) is celebrated to commemorate the liberation of the Children of Israel who were led out of slavery in Egypt by Moses.
It is a major eight day festival. A highlight is the Seder meal held in each family's home at the beginning of the festival, when the story of their deliverance is recounted as narrated in the Haggadah (the Telling, the Story). Matzah (unleavened bread) is eaten throughout the festival, as are other foods that contain no leaven. There is a great spring cleaning in the home before the festival to ensure that no trace of leaven is left in the home during Pesach.
Rosh Hashanah - Jewish New Year
Rosh Hashanah is the Jewish New Year festival and commemorates the creation of the world.
This festival marks the Jewish New Year and begins with ten days of repentance and self examination, during which time God sits in judgement on every person. The festival is also known as the Day of Judgement, the Day of the Sounding of the Shofar, and the Day of Remembrance.
Over the two days of Rosh Hashanah, there are special services at the synagogue. A musical instrument, called a shofar, is blown. It makes a loud piercing sound like a trumpet and reminds Jews of God's great power.
People east slices of apple dipped in honey. This is a way of wishing each other a sweet and happy New Year.
Happy New Year - 'Leshanah Tovah Tikatevy'
Yom Kippur - the Day of Atonement
Yom Kippur, the most sacred and solemn day of the Jewish year, brings the Days of Repentance to a close.
As well as fasting for 25 hours, Jews spend the day in prayer, asking for forgiveness and resolving to behave better in the future.
Sukkot / Sukkoth
Sukkot commemorates the years that the Jews spent in the desert on their way to the Promised Land. Some lived in tents whilst others built huts out of leaves and branches. These huts were called sukkot.
During the festival, some Jews build their own sukkah in the garden or at the synagogue. Jews eat their meals in the sukkah for the eight or nine days of the festival.
There are rules to making the sukkah. Each sukkah must have at least three walls. The roof of the sukkah must be made of material referred to as sekhakh, which means "covering." Thie 'covering' must be something that grew from the ground and was cut off, such as tree branches, corn stalks, bamboo reeds or sticks. Sekhakh (the roof covering) should be sparse and left loose enough so that the stars can be seen.
There is a special Sukkot service in the synagogue. Everyone holds branches from three trees in their hands and a citron fruit in their right. They walk around the synagogue seven times, waving the branches.
(Sukkah is the singular, Sukkot is the plural)
Hanukkah or Chanukah is the Jewish Festival of Lights. It dates back to two centuries before the beginning of Christianity. It is an eight day holiday starting on the 25th night of the Jewish month of Kislev
Hanukka celebrates the miraculous victory over religious persecution in the Holy Land and also commemorates the re-dedication of the Second Temple in Jerusalem and the miracle of the burning oil. This is where the oil of the menorah (the candelabrum in the temple) miraculously burned for eight days, even though there was only enough oil for one day.
Tisha B'av is a solemn occasion because it commemorates a series of tragedies that have befallen the Jewish people over the years
Tu B'Shevat is the Jewish 'New Year for Trees'. It is one of the four Jewish new years (Rosh Hashanahs).
Yom Hashoah is a day set aside for Jews to remember the Holocaust.
Calendar of Religious Festivals