Rolihlahla Mandela was born into the Madiba clan in the village of Mvezo, in the Eastern Cape, on 18 July 1918. His mother was Nonqaphi Nosekeni and his father was Nkosi Mphakanyiswa Gadla Mandela, principal counsellor to the Acting King of the Thembu people, Jongintaba Dalindyebo. In 1930, when he was 12 years old, his father died and the young Rolihlahla became a ward of Jongintaba at the Great Place in Mqhekezweni1.
Hearing the elders’ stories of his ancestors’ valour during the wars of resistance, he dreamed also of making his own contribution to the freedom struggle of his people.
He attended primary school in Qunu where his teacher, Miss Mdingane, gave him the name Nelson, in accordance with the custom of giving all schoolchildren “Christian” names.
He completed his Junior Certificate at Clarkebury Boarding Institute and went on to Healdtown, a Wesleyan secondary school of some repute, where he matriculated.
Mandela began his studies for a Bachelor of Arts degree at the University College of Fort Hare but did not complete the degree there as he was expelled for joining in a student protest.
On his return to the Great Place at Mqhekezweni the King was furious and said if he didn’t return to Fort Hare he would arrange wives for him and his cousin Justice. They ran away to Johannesburg instead, arriving there in 1941. There he worked as a mine security officer and after meeting Walter Sisulu, an estate agent, he was introduced to Lazer Sidelsky. He then did his articles through a firm of attorneys – Witkin, Eidelman and Sidelsky.
He completed his BA through the University of South Africa and went back to Fort Hare for his graduation in 1943.
Meanwhile, he began studying for an LLB at the University of the Witwatersrand. By his own admission he was a poor student and left the university in 1952 without graduating. He only started studying again through the University of London after his imprisonment in 1962 but also did not complete that degree.
In 1989, while in the last months of his imprisonment, he obtained an LLB through the University of South Africa. He graduated in absentia at a ceremony in Cape Town.
Mandela, while increasingly politically involved from 1942, only joined the African National Congress in 1944 when he helped to form the ANC Youth League (ANCYL).
In 1944 he married Walter Sisulu’s cousin, Evelyn Mase, a nurse. They had two sons, Madiba Thembekile "Thembi" and Makgatho, and two daughters both called Makaziwe, the first of whom died in infancy. He and his wife divorced in 1958.
Mandela rose through the ranks of the ANCYL and through its efforts, the ANC adopted a more radical mass-based policy, the Programme of Action, in 1949.
In 1952 he was chosen as the National Volunteer-in-Chief of the Defiance Campaign with Maulvi Cachalia as his deputy. This campaign of civil disobedience against six unjust laws was a joint programme between the ANC and the South African Indian Congress. He and 19 others were charged under the Suppression of Communism Act for their part in the campaign and sentenced to nine months of hard labour, suspended for two years.
A two-year diploma in law on top of his BA allowed Mandela to practise law, and in August 1952 he and Oliver Tambo established South Africa’s first black law firm, Mandela & Tambo.
At the end of 1952 he was banned for the first time. As a restricted person he was only permitted to watch in secret as the Freedom Charter was adopted in Kliptown on 26 June 1955.
The Treason Trial
Mandela was arrested in a countrywide police swoop on 5 December 1955, which led to the 1956 Treason Trial. Men and women of all races found themselves in the dock in the marathon trial that only ended when the last 28 accused, including Mandela, were acquitted on 29 March 1961.
On 21 March 1960 police killed 69 unarmed people in a protest in Sharpeville against the pass laws. This led to the country’s first state of emergency and the banning of the ANC and the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) on 8 April. Mandela and his colleagues in the Treason Trial were among thousands detained during the state of emergency.
During the trial Mandela married a social worker, Winnie Madikizela, on 14 June 1958. They had two daughters, Zenani and Zindziswa. The couple divorced in 1996.
Days before the end of the Treason Trial, Mandela travelled to Pietermaritzburg to speak at the All-in Africa Conference, which resolved that he should write to Prime Minister Verwoerd requesting a national convention on a non-racial constitution, and to warn that should he not agree there would be a national strike against South Africa becoming a republic. After he and his colleagues were acquitted in the Treason Trial, Mandela went underground and began planning a national strike for 29, 30 and 31 March.
In the face of massive mobilisation of state security the strike was called off early. In June 1961 he was asked to lead the armed struggle and helped to establish Umkhonto weSizwe (Spear of the Nation), which launched on 16 December 1961 with a series of explosions.
On 11 January 1962, using the adopted name David Motsamayi, Mandela secretly left South Africa. He travelled around Africa and visited England to gain support for the armed struggle. He received military training in Morocco and Ethiopia and returned to South Africa in July 1962. He was arrested in a police roadblock outside Howick on 5 August while returning from KwaZulu-Natal, where he had briefed ANC President Chief Albert Luthuli about his trip.
He was charged with leaving the country without a permit and inciting workers to strike. He was convicted and sentenced to five years' imprisonment, which he began serving at the Pretoria Local Prison. On 27 May 1963 he was transferred to Robben Island and returned to Pretoria on 12 June. Within a month police raided Liliesleaf, a secret hideout in Rivonia, Johannesburg, used by ANC and Communist Party activists, and several of his comrades were arrested.
On 9 October 1963 Mandela joined 10 others on trial for sabotage in what became known as the Rivonia Trial. While facing the death penalty his words to the court at the end of his famous "Speech from the Dock" on 20 April 1964 became immortalised:
“ I have fought against white domination, and I have fought against black domination. I have cherished the ideal of a democratic and free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to live for and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal for which I am prepared to die. ”Speech from the Dock quote by Nelson Mandela on 20 April 1964
On 11 June 1964 Mandela and seven other accused, Walter Sisulu, Ahmed Kathrada, Govan Mbeki, Raymond Mhlaba, Denis Goldberg, Elias Motsoaledi and Andrew Mlangeni, were convicted and the next day were sentenced to life imprisonment. Goldberg was sent to Pretoria Prison because he was white, while the others went to Robben Island.
Mandela’s mother died in 1968 and his eldest son, Thembi, in 1969. He was not allowed to attend their funerals.
On 31 March 1982 Mandela was transferred to Pollsmoor Prison in Cape Town with Sisulu, Mhlaba and Mlangeni. Kathrada joined them in October. When he returned to the prison in November 1985 after prostate surgery, Mandela was held alone. Justice Minister Kobie Coetsee visited him in hospital. Later Mandela initiated talks about an ultimate meeting between the apartheid government and the ANC.
Release from prison
On 12 August 1988 he was taken to hospital where he was diagnosed with tuberculosis. After more than three months in two hospitals he was transferred on 7 December 1988 to a house at Victor Verster Prison near Paarl where he spent his last 14 months of imprisonment. He was released from its gates on Sunday 11 February 1990, nine days after the unbanning of the ANC and the PAC and nearly four months after the release of his remaining Rivonia comrades. Throughout his imprisonment he had rejected at least three conditional offers of release.
Mandela immersed himself in official talks to end white minority rule and in 1991 was elected ANC President to replace his ailing friend, Oliver Tambo. In 1993 he and President FW de Klerk jointly won the Nobel Peace Prize and on 27 April 1994 he voted for the first time in his life.
On 10 May 1994 he was inaugurated as South Africa’s first democratically elected President. On his 80th birthday in 1998 he married Graça Machel, his third wife.
True to his promise, Mandela stepped down in 1999 after one term as President. He continued to work with the Nelson Mandela Children’s Fund he set up in 1995 and established the Nelson Mandela Foundation and The Mandela Rhodes Foundation.
In April 2007 his grandson, Mandla Mandela, was installed as head of the Mvezo Traditional Council at a ceremony at the Mvezo Great Place.
Nelson Mandela never wavered in his devotion to democracy, equality and learning. Despite terrible provocation, he never answered racism with racism. His life is an inspiration to all who are oppressed and deprived; and to all who are opposed to oppression and deprivation.
He died at his home in Johannesburg on 5 December 2013.
1. Nelson Mandela's father died in 1930 when Mandela was 12 and his mother died in 1968 when he was in prison. While the autobiography Long Walk to Freedom says his father died when he was nine, historical evidence shows it must have been later, most likely 1930. In fact, the original Long Walk to Freedom manuscript (written on Robben Island) states the year as 1930, when he was 12.
Life and times of Nelson Mandela
Nelson Mandela (top row, second from left) on the steps of Wits University.
(Image: © Wits University Archives)
Nelson Mandela on the roof of Kholvad House in 1953.
(Image: courtesy of the Ahmed Kathrada Foundation)
Madiba travelled with his Ethiopian passport.
(Image: © National Archives of South Africa)
A picture captured during a rare visit from his comrades at Victor Verster Prison.
(Image: © National Archives of South Africa)
Nelson Mandela, the first black president of South Africa, has died at the age of 95.
The fears of South Africa, the nation that once was deeply divided in its perceptions of Mandela, have now been realised. This man, who inspired dread in the white apartheid regime, which labelled him a “terrorist” and imprisoned him for 27 years, inspired such love that South Africa’s greatest concern was losing him.
His presence was a constant beacon of hope and guidance as South Africa battled its inner demons to achieve the fair and just society that was Mandela’s dream. But what does the future hold for South Africa now that he has passed?
In 1964, Mandela was sentenced to life imprisonment on charges of incitement to sabotage, treason and violent conspiracy against the South African regime. He was described as a leader of the “swart gevaar” (an Afrikaans term literally meaning black danger). This was the white minority’s perception of the political and physical threat presented by the black people living alongside them.
Describing the battle for political power in South Africa as one between white and black people is to oversimplify the challenge that faced Mandela when he became a free man. Understanding the diversity of this nation is to understand the miracle Mandela achieved in eventually becoming a man universally admired and loved for his compassion and integrity.
South Africa is not black and white, but consists of people with ethnic origins stemming as far back as the aboriginal Khoikhoi people (who have lived on the southern tip of Africa for millennia), ethnic origins from north and east Africa, Europe, Asia and India. And then there are those whose ethnicity is mixed. Add to that religious, cultural, language and tribal differences as well as myriad political beliefs.
During apartheid, there were those who cared only for the African indigenous population, there were communists and democrats and separatists. Whites were not uniform in their support of apartheid. The most prominent member of the officially recognised opposition party was a white Jewish woman, Helen Suzman. Many whites were members of the African National Congress (ANC) and many blacks felt their future lay in an alliance with the apartheid regime.
The whisperings about the release of Mandela began in the 1980s. This was also a decade of violent turmoil. Little was known about the man imprisoned on Robben Island. All information about him had been ruthlessly suppressed by the regime, ironically fuelling his mystique. His image was surrounded by a complex mythology: he was a martyr, saviour, avenger or destroyer.
But did South Africans know the true heart of the man who began his long walk to freedom on a sunny day in February 1990? And did Mandela, as he entered a new reality, feel the crushing weight of conflicting expectations of the nation and a watchful world?
When Nelson Mandela stood before the Union Buildings in 1994, he achieved something that was inconceivable a mere decade earlier: he became South Africa’s first ever black president.
Mandela started upon a journey that was daunting: how to unite a traumatised, divided, angry and fearful nation. Many expected that his reign would bring vengeance, retribution and civil war. Instead, his message was one of reconciliation and forgiveness.
At first this was incomprehensible. Whites expected to be “driven into the sea” – a commonplace threat - and stalwarts of the struggle for freedom expected retribution for years of suffering under the yoke of apartheid. How could a man who had suffered for so long not want revenge for himself and his people?
But Mandela surprised everyone because he believed his role was to lead everyone to the “holy land”. His leadership message was consistent for the past 23 years; his values and beliefs steadfast and unstinting while he walked the long, uphill road. It is extraordinary that through the strength of his personality and will, he led the nation away from the brink of war and inspired the blossoming of hope.
Mandela’s message slowly took root in South African soil and for the first time the country became known as the “Rainbow Nation”, in Archbishop Desmond Tutu’s words, a symbol of acceptance and pride in its diversity.
The extent of the belief in Mandela was undeniable when he stepped down as president in 1999. Collectively, South Africans feared the country would plunge into turmoil once again without his steady hand on the tiller. And yet it did not; perhaps Mandela’s quiet moral presence remained a stabilising influence behind the scenes. The country believed it could still turn to him in times of trouble.
But now South Africa is trying to come to terms with the fact that the man who has become a global icon and symbol of morality has left it forever. It is experiencing the same fearful emotions all over again. In the past, South Africans have avoided talking about the demise of “the father of the nation”.
South Africa is being forced to come to terms with the fact that Mandela has passed. I have long feared this day, and yet I have to believe that the legacy he left us will forever be in the DNA of South Africa and carry us forward, no matter what.