In “I Hear America Singing,” the speaker describes various "carols" that arise from different figures in the American working class as people go about their work. He hears the mechanics, the carpenter, the mason, and the boatman singing. The deckhand, shoemaker, hatter, wood-cutter, and ploughboy sing their own songs, as well. The speaker celebrates each individual song, which provides the connection between the worker and his/her task: for example, "the deckhand [sings] on the steamboat deck" and "the shoemaker [sings] as he sits on his bench." The speaker mentions the working women, as well. The mother and the young wife sing, as does the girl doing her sewing and washing. Each person in the poem has an individual carol, and together, they create the sound of "America Singing."
The poem consists of one stanza, which is made up of eleven lines. Whitman writes in his characteristic free verse. The structure is simple - it follows the simple list format that Whitman commonly employs in his poetry. One by one, he lists the different members of the American working class and describes the way they sing as they perform their respective tasks. He formats each line and sentence similarly, as many begin with the word "the," and contain phrases that are variations on "as he ___" or "on his way to ___." This structural choice gives the lines a quick pace and an a rhythmic whimsicality. Because of this, the poem gives the reader the sensation of hearing these carols in rapid succession.
This poem exemplifies the theme of musicality in Whitman's poetry. Whitman uses music to emphasize the interconnectedness of the human experience. Even though each worker sings his or her individual song, the act of singing is universal, and by extension, all of the workers unite under one common American identity.
Although Whitman is describing actual songs in this poem, there are instances earlier in the collection where he uses the word "sing" to stand in for "write" when referring to his poetry. This is because of Whitman's belief that poetry was strongest as an oral medium. Whitman wanted his poems to be spoken aloud because the words became more powerful when they can transcend the page. Because of this strong connection between music and poetry, Whitman often wrote his poems in a way that mimicked the natural rhythms of recitation and music.
The tone of the poem is joyful, whimsical, and hopeful. Whitman celebrates in the common American worker, magnifying his characters with descriptors such as "robust," "friendly," "blithe," and "strong." He highlights individuals that often go unnoticed in classic poems; these older verses focus on tales of brave soldiers and heroes. Ultimately, “I Hear America Singing” is a love poem to the nation. Whitman uses the small variations in individual experiences to crafts a wholesome, honest, and hardworking American identity.
When Walt Whitman wrote ‘I Hear America Singing’, he intentionally wanted to catch the attention of America’s individuality. Langston Hughes responded to Whitman, by writing ‘I, Too’ because he felt like every culture wasn’t included in America according to Whitman’s poem. ‘I, Too’ references African Americans during the time of Harlem Renaissance, World War I and II . One of the purposes of this poem is to attract the attention from African Americans and Caucasians. In this poem, Langston Hughes shows his ambition towards changing the level of equality of African Americans and the rest of America. The poem explains Hughes sitting at the table but being asked to move when a Caucasian comes in the restaurant. He is told to eat in the kitchen because he is a ‘darker brother’. The Caucasians who told him to give up his seat expects the personna to take offense to this, but instead laughs. He knows that one day he will be able to sit at the table and without the feeling of shame. This poem was written during the period of the Harlem Renaissance.
Originating in Harlem, New York during the 1920’s, this movement was started to shed light on the history, experience, and creativity of the African American community. Though there are many cultures found within America, the prevailing culture at this time suppressed that of African Americans. The emphasis of the Negro culture promoted the need to understand and incorporate the Bryant-Erales 2 importance of this culture in the ‘melting pot’ that is America. Hughes uses this poem to highlight the fact that his culture is also that of America. Hughes does not have the power to control what is said to him, but he can control his reactions.
African Americans have always been able to deal with the negatives cast to them and grown stronger. ‘But I laugh,/And eat well,/And grow strong.’ (lines 5-7). Hughes uses irony in these lines in that he was told to do something as derogatory as moving for a ‘better’ person, yet he reminds himself of the fact that those times will not last much longer.
Therefore he laughs, enjoys his food, and develops more strength to continue to fight for equality.’Speaking for all African Americans, he says that he will feed his soul independent of others and grow strong within until that time comes when you begin the see the beauty and worth of my people’s contributions. He does not merely believe change is possible by speaking in grandiose terms.’ (Booth p.5) Caucasians would expect him to be affected in a negative way and outraged, because he has to eat in the kitchen, but he was not discouraged. When he finally gets to eat at the table, others will be ashamed. Caucasians will see his beauty and see their wrongdoings for sending him to the kitchen. Hughes spoke to determined individuals who were serious about progress and work towards a permanent change. ‘But I laugh/ And eat well’ (lines 5-6).
These lines influences African Americans to have faith and enjoy life even though they may experience a rough journey that will eventually lead to joy. In addition, he explains the significance amount of the joy that will come after the blacks work together to make a difference. The word,’table’ (line 9) means a celebration for change. He remains optimistic and sees the people from all different backgrounds getting along. Bryant-Erales 3 Hughes knew that there would be a day where everyone is equal. In this poem, Hughes states ‘Tomorrow,/I’ll be at the table’ (line 8).
Not only does this state that African Americans will not have to be ashamed and sent to the kitchen to eat but they are free to sit at the table. In other words this day would show America truly united. At this time, there was a lot of violence and hateful oppression. He doesn’t necessarily look over the negative things that happened but he has hope that America would change for the better. ‘One day, these whites will be ‘ashamed’ of their conduct and admit that he, too,sings America-he, too is America'(Rampersad par.3). America at this point could be better only if people would change their views.
The ‘table’ is a symbol of equality. By being at the table, Hughes is saying his voice was heard and he is now included in America. African Americans weren’t treated like Caucasians because of their skin color. Hughes avoided using specifics words that would create feelings that would stir controversy. ‘I, too, sing America/I am the darker brother'(line 2). Hughes means he is related to the rest of America, but he looks and feels different compared to the rest of America. This quote also demonstrates many African Americans including him singing the national anthem and having freedom.
In other words, singing represents blacks having a voice in America and looking forward to having freedom in the future. ”Darker’ (2) is used in place of black to refer to African Americans. Rather than saying white, Hughes uses ‘they’ (3) to talk about Caucasian Americans. This poem offers a glimpse into the future where there is greater unity among the races’ (Booth par.3). Being darker at this time meant having less rights. When African Americans went to restaurants Bryant-Erales 4 they weren’t allowed to sit anywhere they wanted. They only had the option of eating in the kitchen or in the back of the building.
Hughes spoke for better days, which would mean him being included in America. He remains optimistic about what the future holds. ‘Tomorrow,/I’ll be at the table/When company comes'(lines 8-10). Sitting at the table shows freedom and equality and by him not being able to sit there shows that he doesn’t have either of these. He continued to think positive and had no problem fighting for what he believed in. Hughes created an enlightening story of staying strong and experiencing the true meaning of freedom.
This line shows how African Americans advocated the importance of being strong and positive. African Americans fought until they achieved their goal of equality. In conclusion, Hughes wanted to feel like he was apart of America. In this poem he showed ambition since he stayed positive by staying focused on better days. He wanted to end racism so he could feel the real definition of freedom. He wanted to everyone to feel equal no matter what their skin color was. His poem relates to the Harlem Renaissance and how the African American community to enlighten people. All of the hard work that African Americans put into making everyone feel equal, worked. Patience is the key to changen here…